The Colourful Look of the Maussolleion at Halikarnassos

Gürol AYTEPE - Abdulkadir BARAN

Arkhaia Anatolika 4. Sayı

Arrival Date : 11.05.2021 | Acceptance Date : 17.06.2021

DOI : 10.32949/Arkhaia.2021.33 | Release Date : 20.6.2021 14:05:56

Summary

This paper aims to investigate the painting remains and with the help of parallel examples to propose a restitution of the original colourful look of the Maussolleion at Halikarnassos which is the monumental tomb of Karian satrap Maussollos who died in 353/352 BC. It is known that the Maussolleion stood intact at Halikarnassos until an earthquake in the 12th century AD. The monumentality and artistic effect of the building influenced many architects of its time who later constructed several monumental buildings and it was listed as one of “the Seven Wonders of the World” by the ancient writers. It is well known that ancient builders coloured all the building parts including sculptures, and the Maussolleion was originally richly coloured. The colouring was not only for visual effect but it also created protection layers for the monument as we know stood intact more than fifteen centuries. Newton reported that he had observed parts of the colours were still visible on the newly excavated fragments but he also mentioned that they quickly disappeared after the exposure. A coat of varnish should have protected these colours, which were mostly organic based. The polychromy of the ancient buildings and sculptures has long been in discussion because of the remains of organic colours are scarce and not easily visible by naked eye but the advanced technics applied on the remains in recent times proved that the use of colour in antiquity was extensively common. The investigations and analyses on the existing remains of the Maussolleion also point to the colourful look. Blue, red and creamy white varnish were the dominant colours used especially on the architectural details of the monument, but yellow, brown, light blue, purple and green were also used on the mouldings and sculpture. The technique of gilding and attachments from bronze, precious stones, gold etc. were also employed for the decoration. The use of bluish limestone on the lower parts of the cella, podium, plinthoi and probably for chamber walls was also for decorative purpose and this enriched the look of the monument. All of the evidence helps us to propose the best possible reconstruction on colouring of the monument. Further investigations in the future might reveal more evidence but for now, it seems this colourful look is quite acceptable and it is more than a hypothetical reconstruction for the most parts. The examples from Halikarnassos, Labraunda and Priene indicate the usage of a standard way of painting and point to the unity of the Hekatomnids’ architectural decoration as seen on many parts of the architectural progress of the region.

Ancient Literature

Plin. nat.: Plinius, Naturalis Historia. Vol. IX, Books XXXIII-XXXV (H. Rackham Trans.). Harvard University Press 1968.

Modern Literature

Anabolu, M. (1991). Batı Anadolu’nun Hellenistik ve Roma Devri Mimarlığında Meander Motifi. Arkeoloji Dergisi, 1, 3-6.

Ashmole, B. (1972). Architect and Sculptor in Classical Grece. Phaidon Press.

Blid, J. (2019). Architectural Polychromy at Hekatomnid Labraunda. In M. Mulliez (Ed.) Restituer les couleurs: Le rôle de la restitution dans les recherches sur la polychromie, en sculpture, architecture et peinture murale: actes du colloque 29-30 Novembre et 1er Décembre 2017 (pp. 113-121). Ausonius.

Boardman, J. (2005). Yunan HeykeliKlasik Dönem. (G. Ergin, Trans.). Homer Kitabevi.

Boardman, J. (2013). Yunan Heykeli, Arkaik Dönem. (Y. Ersoy, Trans.). Homer Kitabevi.

Brain, S. (2012). South from Ephesus: Travels through Aegean Turkey. Tauris Parke Paperbacks.

Brinkmann, V. (2003). Die Polychromie der archaischen und frühklassischen Skulptur. Biering & Brinkmann.

Brinkmann, V. (2006a). Arkaik ve Klasik Dönem Heykellerinde Renk. In B. Buchwalter (Ed.) Renkli Tanrılar: Antik Heykel Sanatında Çokrenklilik (pp. 22-39). Ege Yayınları.

Brinkmann, V. (2006b). Aristion Mezar Anıtı. In B. Buchwalter (Ed.) Renkli Tanrılar: Antik Heykel Sanatında Çokrenklilik (pp. 50-59). Ege Yayınları.

Brinkmann, V. (2006c). Prens ve Tanrıça, Aphaia Tapınağı Alınlık Heykellerinin Yeniden Keşfedilen Renkleri. In B. Buchwalter (Ed.) Renkli Tanrılar: Antik Heykel Sanatında Çokrenklilik (pp. 61-87). Ege Yayınları.

Brinkmann, V. (2006d). Perslerin Mavi Gözleri, Büyük İskender Dönemi ve Hellenistik Dönem Heykel Sanatında Çokrenklilik. In B. Buchwalter (Ed.) Renkli Tanrılar: Antik Heykel Sanatında Çokrenklilik (pp. 121-132). Ege Yayınları.

Brinkmann, V. (2006e). Boyalar ve Boyama Teknikleri. In B. Buchwalter (Ed.) Renkli Tanrılar: Antik Heykel Sanatında Çokrenklilik (pp. 149-153). Ege Yayınları.

Brinkmann, V. (2008). The Polychromy of Ancient Greek Sculpture. In R. Panzanelli, E. D. Schmidt & K. Lapatin (Eds.) The Color of Life: Polychromy in Sculpture from Antiquity to the Present (pp. 18-39). J. Paul Getty Museum.

Bruno, V. J. (1981). The Painted Metopes at Lefkadia and the Problem of Color in Doric Sculptured Metopes. AJA, 85, 3-11. https://doi.org/10.2307/504961

Carter, J. C. (1983). The Sculptures of the Sanctuary of Athena Polias at Priene. Society of Antiquaries of London.

Castriota, D. (1992). Myth, Ethos and Actuality Official Art in Fifth-Century B.C. Athens. Wisconsin University Press.

Childs, W. A. P. (1993). Herodotos, Archaic Chronology, and the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. JdI108, 399-441.

Cook, B. F. (1976). The Mausoleum Frieze: Membra Disjectanda. BSA, 71, 49-54. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068245400005773

Cook, R. M. (1981). Clazomenian Sarcophagi. Philipp von Zabern.

Cook, B. F., Ashmole, B. & Strong, D. E. (2005). Relief Sculpture of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. Oxford University Press.

Dinsmoor, W. B. (1973). The Architecture of Ancient Greece: An Account of its Historic Development. Biblo and Tannen.

Er, Y. (2006). Klasik Arkeoloji Sözlüğü. Phoenix.

Erhat, A. (2008). Mitoloji Sözlüğü. Remzi Kitabevi Yayınları.

Fenger, L. (1886). Dorische Polychromie, Untersuchungen über Die Anwendung Der Farbe Auf Dem Dorischen Tempel. Berlin: A. Asher & Co.

Frantz, A. (1954). The Hephaisteion Revisited. Archaeology, 7, 244-248.

Frantzi, G. G., Maridaki, A. M., Papakonstantinou, E. Ch., Verri, G., Sotiropoulou, S., & Brecoulaki, H. (2013). The revelation of the decorative pattern of the coffered ceiling on the Porch of the Maidens in the Erechteion. In J. S. Østergaard (Ed.) Tracking Colour The polychromy of Greek and Roman sculpture in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Preliminary Report 5 (pp. 89-90). Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek.

Hellström, P. (2007). Labraunda: A Guide to the Karian Sanctuary of Zeus Labraundos. Ege Yayınları.

Hoepfner, W. (1996). Zum Maussolleion von Halikarnassos. AA, 95-114.

Hoepfner, W. (2013). Halikarnassos und das Maussolleion: Die Modernste Stadtanlage und der als Weltwunder Gefeierte Grabtempel des Karischen Königs Maussollos. Philipp von Zabern.

Hurwit, J. M. (1999). The Athenian Acropolis: History, Mythology and Archeology from the Neolithic Era to the Present. Cambridge University Press.

Işık, C. (2019). Die Wandmalereien in der Grabkammer des HekatomneionsBeobachtungen zu Figurentypen, zur Komposition, Ikonographie und zum Stil. Asia Minor Studien 91. Habelt-Verlag.

Jenkins, I. (2006). Greek Architecture and its Sculpture in the British Museum. British Museum Press.

Jenkins, I. & Middleton, A. P. (1988). Paint on the Parthenon Sculptures. BSA, 83, 183-207.

Jenkins, I., Gratziu, C. & Middleton, A. P. (1997). The Polychromy of the Mausoleum. In I. Jenkins & G. B Waywell (Eds.) Sculptors and Sculptures of Caria and the Dodecanese (pp. 35-40). British Museum Press.

Jeppesen, K. (1989). What did the Maussolleion look like?. In T. Linder & P. Hellström (Eds.) Architecture and the Society in Hekatomnid Caria: Proceeding of the Uppsala Symposium 1987 (pp. 15-22). S. Academiae Upsaliensis.

Jeppesen, K. (1998). Das Maussolleion von Halikarnass: Forschungsbericht 1997. Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens, 2(2), 161-231.

Jeppesen, K. (2000). The Maussolleion at Halikarnassos, Vol. 4The Quadrangle. Aarhus University Press.

Jeppesen, K. (2002). The Maussolleion at Halikarnassos, Vol. 5, Superstructure. Aarhus University Press.

Jeppesen, K. (2007). A fresh approach to the problems of the Parthenon Frieze. Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens, 5, 101-172.

Karageorghis, V. (1998). Greek Gods and Heroes in Ancient Cyprus. Commercial Bank of Greece.

Koenigs, W. (2015). Der Athenatempel von Priene. Reichert Verlag.

Kottaridi, A. (2011). Burial Customs and Belief in the Royal Necropolis of Aegae. In A. Kottaridi & S. Walker (Eds.) From Heracles to Alexander the Great, Treasures from the Royal Capital of Macedon, A Hellenic Kingdom in the Age of Democracy (pp. 131-152). Ashmolean Museum.

Lethaby, W. R. (1908). Greek Buildings Represented by Fragments in the British Museum. Batsford.

Marconi, C. (2007). Temple Decoration and Cultural Identity in the Archaic Greek World: The Metopes of Selinus. Cambridge University Press

McGowan, E. P. (1997). The Origins of the Athenian Ionic Capital. Hesperia, 66, 209-33. https://doi.org/10.2307/148483

Merchán, M. J. & Merchán, P. (2013). Methods and Techniques to Retrieve Ancient, An Overview. In L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres (Eds.) Proceedings of INTED 2013 Conference 4th-6th March 2013, Valencia-Spain (pp. 1278-1284). Inted.

Meritt, L. S. (1996). Athenian Ionic Capitals in the Athenian Agora. Hesperia, 65, 121-174. https://doi.org/10.2307/148455

Neer, R. (2010). The Emergence of the Classical Style in Greek Sculpture. University of Chicago Press.

Neils, J. (2016). Color and Carving: Architectural Decoration in Mainland Greece. In M. M. Miles (Ed.) A Companion to Greek Architecture Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World (pp. 164-176). Wiley Blackwell.

Newby, Z. (2016). Greek Myths in Roman Art and Culture, Imagery, Values and Identity in Italy, 50 BC-AD 250. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139680387

Newton, C. T. (1862). A History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus and Branchidae. Day & So.

Newton, C. T. (1865). Travels and Discoveries in the Levant. Day & So.

Ohnesorg, A. (2007). Der Kroisos-Tempel: Neue Forschungen zum archaischen Dipteros der Artemis von Ephesos. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Osman Hamdi Bey & Reinach, T. (1892). Une Necropole Royale a Sidon, Fouilles de Hamdi Bey. Ernest Leroux.

Palagia, O. (2006). Function, Materials, and Techniques in the Archaic and Classical Periods. Cambridge University Press.

Palagia, O. (2012). Architectural Sculpture. In T. J. Smith & D. Plantzos (Eds.) A Companion to Greek Art (pp. 153-170). Wiley-Blackwell.

Pallatino, M. (1952). La Peinture Etrusque. Albert Skira.

Picard, C. & De La Coste-Messeliere, P. (1928). Fouilles de Delphes 4/3, Monuments Figures Sculpture, Art Archaique, Sculptures des temples. De Boccard.

Praschniker, C. & Theuer, M. (1979). Das Mausoleum von Belevi: Archäologische Untersuchungen zu Chronologie, Ausstattung und Stiftung. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Rayet, O. & Thomas, A. (1880). Milet et le Golfe Latmique, Tralles, Magnesie du Meandre, Priene, Milet, Didymes, Heraclee du Latmos, Fouilles et Explorations Archeologiques, Tome Deuxieme. J. Baudry.

Ρωμιοπούλου, K. (1997). Λευκάδια Αρχαία Μιέζα. Ταμείο Αρχαιολογικών Πόρων.

Richter, G. M. A. & Hall, L. F. (1944). Polychromy in Greek Sculpture. BMMA, 2, 233-240.

Ridgway, B. S. (1993). The Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture. Ares Publisher.

Ridgway, B. S. (1999). Prayers in Stone, Greek Architectural Sculpture (600-100 B.C.E). University of California Press.

Sargent, M. L. & Therkildsen, R. H. (2010). The Technical Investigation of Sculptural Polychromy at the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek 2009–2010 – An Outline. In J. S. Østergaard (Ed.) Tracking Colour – The Polychromy of Greek and Roman Sculpture in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek Preliminary Report 2 (pp. 11-26). Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek.

Schefold, K. & Giuliani, L. (1992). Gods and Heroes in Late Archaic Greek Art. Cambridge University Press.

Shapiro, B. K. D. (1988). Ymnon thesauros: Pindar’s Sixth Pythian Ode and the Treasury of the Siphnians at Delphi. MusHelv, 45, 1-5. http://doi.org/10.5169/seals-35134

Shoe, L. T. (1949). Dark Stone in Greek Architecture. Commemorative Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear (pp. 341-352). American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

Smith, A. H. (1900). The Mausoleum and Sculptures of Halicarnassos and Priene in the British Museum. British Museum.

Smith, A. H. (1920). Guide to the Department Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. British Museum.

Smith, R. R. (2002). Hellenistik Heykel. (A. Y. Yıldırım, Trans.). Homer Kitabevi.

Sporleder, R. F. (2015). The Bassae-Frieze: 200 Years of Guesswork. In C. Klose, L. C. Bossert & W. Leveritt (Eds.) Fresh Perspectives on Graeco-Roman Visual Culture. Proceedings of an International Conference at Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, 2nd–3rd September 2013 (pp. 23-33). Humbolt.

Stanzl, G. (1999). The Ptolemaion at Limyra and its Recently Discovered Curvature. In L. Haselberger (Ed.) Appearance and Essence: Refinements of Classical Architecture: Curvature. (pp. 155-171). University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

Stanzl, G. (2003). Das Ptolemaion von Limyra: Vom Entstehen eines antiken Bauwerks. AntW 34, 3-14.

Stark, F. (2011). The Lycian Shore. John Murray.

Summit, J. B. (2000). Greek Architectural Polychromy from the Seventh to Second Centuries BC: History and Significance [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Michigan.

Tarbell, F. B. (1920). Centauromachy and Amazonomachy in Greek Art: The Reasons for their Popularity. AJA, 24(3), 226-31. https://doi.org/10.2307/497687

Tsibidou-Avloniti, M. (2002). Excavating a painted Macedonian tomb near Thessaloniki. An astonishing discovery. In M. Stamatopoulou & M. Yeroulanou (Eds.) Excavating Classical Culture Recent Archaeological Discoveries in Greece (pp. 91-98). Beazley Archive and Archaeopres.

Waywell, G. B. (1978). The free-standing sculptures of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus in the British Museum: a catalogue. British Museum Publications.

Weller, M. E. (1970). The Procession on the Sarcophagus of the Mourning Women. CSCA, 3, 219-227.

Westcoat, B. D. (2012). The Temple of Athena at Assos. Oxford University Press.

Vermeule, C. (1961). Etruscan Leopards and Lion. BMFA, 59, 13-21.

Zink, S., Taschner, M., Reiche, I., Alfeld, M., Aibéo, C., Egel, E., Müller, K., Ristau, A., Neuhaus, B. & Massmann, W. (2019). Tracing the colours of Hermogenes temple of Artemis: architectural surface analysis in the Antikensammlung Berlin. In B. Bourgeois (Ed.) Les couleurs de l’Antique (Actes de la 8e table ronde sur la polychromie de la sculpture et de l’architecture antique) Technè 48 (pp. 15-26). https://doi.org/10.4000/techne.1791

Aytepe, G. ve Baran, A. (2021). The Colourful Look of the Maussolleion at Halikarnassos. Arkhaia Anatolika, 4, 215-236. https://doi.org/10.32949/Arkhaia.2021.33

Share!