Article Types Definitions

All articles are assigned a type, depending on the content of the article. This is useful to readers, informing them of the style of content to expect (original research, archaeological report, etc.) and for indexing services when applying filters to search results. This section details the most common article types, although is not exhaustive. Editors have the final say on which type should be assigned to a published article. The types of articles published in Arkhaia Anatolika are detailed below.

Research Article

Research articles are the most common type of article in the journals publishing world. They contain pieces of original research that contribute directly to their field.  Research articles apply to all disciplines and subject areas. Research articles are written by experts, for experts and must adhere to the highest standards of peer review and scholarly communications.

The structure should include an Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions section. The article should include the most recent and relevant references in the field.

Archaeological Reports (Excavations & Surveys)

Archaeological Reports contains preliminary reports, as well as final reports of excavations, surveys and ethnoarchaeological fieldwork in Turkey; it also contains archaeological finds recorded during inspection activities.


Editorial are non-peer-reviewed texts used to announce the launch of a new journal, a new section, a new Editor-in-Chief, a Special Issue, or an invited editorial. There are several forms of editorials, and they serve different functions in the various scientific journals. Most often, perhaps, the editorial is a comment on - or a discussion of - a scientific problem or theme addressed in one or several original papers appearing in the same issue. The editorial may review the problem, point to unsolved questions and comment upon the conclusions drawn by the authors of the relevant papers.

Other editorials are free-standing commentaries on a scientific issue, pointing out the problem, reviewing the evidence or simply expressing some views or opinions. Some editorials describe a scientific field or some new developments in teaching, technology or methodology. Finally, editorials may carry statements from the editor about the journal, such as-changes in editorial policy or simply a call for papers.  Also, very personal points of view might preferably be published as a “Letter to the Editor”.

Manuscript Preparation

The title, abstract, and keywords you select for your article play an important part in the discovery of your article after publication. Since many researchers rely on search engines such as Google to find content relevant to their field, the careful selection of keywords in all of these can have a large impact on the life of an article, extending from readership through citation. It is recommended that the manuscripts to be sent to Arkhaia Anatolika be prepared in line with the information below.

Font and Margins: The text of the article should be written in A4 paper size, in 11-point “Book Antiqua” with 9-point abstract and footnotes. Text in tables should be 9-point font. Margins should be 3 cm at the top and left and 2 cm on the right and bottom sides. See Article Template

Title page: A title page including author information must be submitted together with the manuscript. The title page is to include fully descriptive title of the manuscript and, affiliation, title, e-mail address, ORCID, postal address, phone, mobile phone and fax number of the author(s). See Article Template

Title of the article: A good title should contain the fewest possible words that adequately describe the contents of a paper.

Keywords: When choosing keywords, aim to avoid broad terms such as “archaeology” or “art history” and instead try to target specific methodologies, authors, or sub disciplines that are of specific focus for your article. Keywords should list the main topic of the paper for indexing purposes, so it is not recommendable to use general and generic words. Many disciplines have specific keyword lists that may be helpful to reference when selecting your own as these are currently in wide use and will be familiar to many researchers.

We suggest selecting 5-7 keywords to include in the topic of the paper, which will then be tagged to your article upon its publication. Use of abbreviations as keywords should be avoided, except for well-known and standard abbreviations. Keywords that do not appear anywhere in the text should not be used.

Abstract: An effective abstract comprises one or two paragraphs from which the reader can learn the fundamental points of the paper without needing to refer to any additional links or text. A good abstract will contain many if not all of the keywords associated with the paper, and aim to communicate your research in more readily accessible language. For this reason, ideally, you should write your abstract so that it is comprehensible to as wide an audience as possible. You can do this by limiting the amount of technical language that you use and explaining any such language that you do employ.

The abstract must be between 200-500 words. It should be include research background, experimental approach, results and conclusions, and novelty and scientific contribution. It should explain the aim of the paper and include the most relevant results and conclusions, emphasizing the importance and novelty of the work. Numerical data obtained should be avoided in the abstract unless indispensable for the comprehension of the research contribution of the paper. No abbreviations, equations, illustrations, figures, tables or references should appear in the abstract. The information in the abstract should agree with the rest of the text. Also an extensive summary / structured abstract can be added to the end of the article. If the manuscript is in English, extended abstract is not required.

Introduction: The introductory part should clearly describe the aim of the research. Sufficient references to relevant previous publications along with a brief discussion and conclusions of past research should be given. A short section explaining the relevance of the presented research in that context should be included. It should clearly state the primary and secondary purposes of the article and why the methodology used in the present study was chosen and why it will provide new insights. Only, the actual references related with the issues have to be indicated and data or findings related with the current study must not be included in this section.

Methods: This section must contain explicit, concise descriptions of all procedures, materials and methods (i.e. data sources, participants, scales, interviews/reviews, basic measurements, applications, statistical methods) used in the investigation to enable the reader to judge their accuracy, reproducibility, etc. This section should include the known findings at the beginning of the study and the findings during the study must be reported in results section.

Results: The results should be presented in logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important findings first. The all the data in the tables or figures should not be repeated in the text; only the most important observations must be emphasized or summarized.

Discussion: The findings of the study, the findings and results which support or do not support the hypothesis of the study should be discussed, results should be compared and contrasted with findings of other studies in the literature and the different findings from other studies should be explained. The new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them should be emphasized, so that the discussion should provide authors' interpretation of the significance of the obtained results. Crucial information in the research should be emphasized and interpreted in the context of previously published work. The data or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section should not be repeated in detail.

Conclusions: Conclusion should concisely and clearly explain the significance and novelty of the results obtained in the presented work. This section must not be merely the repetition of the content of the preceding sections. The conclusions should be linked with the goals of the study but unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data should be avoided. New hypotheses should be stated when warranted, but should be labeled clearly as such.

Figures, Tables and Graphics: For all visuals, which will be used in the articles, such as pictures, drawings and maps, the abbreviation of “fig.” should be used numbered sequentially.

  • Figures should be “.jpeg or .tiff” format. These materials should be min. 300 pixels and they must not be bigger than page size.
  • All illustrations should be labeled and a list of figures with captions, legends, and credits should be provided on a separate page.
  • The author(s) is/are responsible for the figures excerpted from other sources. For this reason, the source must be specified.
  • Within the text “fig.” should between parentheses. If there are more than two consecutive figures, a hyphen should be placed between the numbers: (figs. 3-5) and if the figures are not consecutive, the numbers should be separated by a comma and a blank space: (figs. 3, 5).

Notes: Notes should be formatted as footnotes, numbered in one series. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Notes may consist of discussion only, discussion and bibliographical citation, or bibliographical citation only. Bibliographical citations in notes should appear in chronological order and be drawn from the list of works cited. These citations should consist of the author’s last name, the year of publication, and relevant inclusive pages, sections, figures, plates, etc. No in-text citations should be used, except for references to primary ancient sources (see Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) 15.5-19 (author-date style).

Bibliographic references to electronic sources should follow the format for printed sources as closely as possible, with sufficient information provided to allow readers to locate original documents or sources of information. If printed versions of electronic sources exist, references should be made to the most recent and complete version.

If more than one source of an author is cited, the sources should be listed by publication date (earliest first).

If more than one source of the same author published in the same year is cited, a lowercase letter should be added in alphabetical order after the publication year (Bruns-Özgan 2002a; Bruns-Özgan 2002b).

If an author has two surnames, these surnames should be separated by a hyphen without any spaces (Işınak-Bruce 2023).

References: The bibliography of the manuscripts should be prepared according to the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) 15.5-19 (author-history style). Authors bear the responsibility for the accuracy of the references; therefore, each reference should be thoroughly checked. References should be selective rather than extensive. Preferably references should include recent international publications, unless giving a review of the field must reflect the topic of the manuscript. Greek and Latin sources should not be included in the bibliography unless there is original text edition or a comparative criticism made over the translations. The bibliography should be placed at the end of the manuscripts.

AJA Abbreviations should be used for abbreviations of periodicals. If the name of the periodical is not included in this list, the full name of the periodical should be written (Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı etc.).

Bibliographical References and Notes

Manuscripts end with a list of all works cited, in alphabetical order by last name of first author. The bibliographical references and notes should be prepared according to the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) 15.5-19 (author-date style). Sample citations are provided below.

Notes with Bibliographical Citations Only

Notes containing no supplementary information should be formatted as follows:

Single-Volume Works Cited

1 Coulton 1976, 77.

2 Rotroff 2006, 150-151, fig. 63.

3 Garlan 2004, 170, no. 267-268.

Multiple Works Cited

1 Shoe 1936, 116-117; see also Schazmann 1932, 67, pl. 22.1-2; Brockmann 1968, 48-55.

2 Crampa 1972, no. 17 and 21; Hellström 1985, 154; Hellström 1990, 58; Rumscheid 1994, 22.

Multiple References to the Same Work or Author

1 Shoe 1936; Shoe 1950.

2 Bruns-Özgan 2002a, 25; Bruns-Özgan 2002b, 250, fig. 3.

Notes with Discussion and Bibliographical Citations                                                              

Notes containing secondary discussion in addition to source documentation should be formatted in the author-date style as follows:

1 Bean and Cook (1955, 109) notes that the city featured a large stadium which measures approximately 200 m, an extensive agora, fortification walls.

2 The inscription has been dated by Robert (1966, 96-98; cf. Roueché 1993, 152) to the first century CE on the basis of the script.

The following should not be used: ad loc., ibid, idem, inter alia, loc. cit., op. cit., passim.                                                      

Journal and Series Titles

AJA Abbreviations should be used for abbreviations of periodicals ( If the name of the periodical is not included in this list, the full name of the periodical should be written.

Page or Plate Numbers

Do not use abbreviations such as f. or ff. for “following page(s)”; inclusive page references, separated by a hyphen without leaving any blank space, must be cited thus:




Inclusive Roman numerals should be given in full: 



Sample References to Books

One Author

Coulton, J. J. 1976. The Architectural Development of the Greek Stoa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

1 Coulton 1976, 77.

Two or More Authors

Machatschek, A., and M. Schwarz. 1981. Bauforschungen in Selge. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

1 Machatschek and Schwarz 1981, 118, fig. 7.

İplikçioğlu, B., G. Çelgin, and A. V. Çelgin. 1991. Epigraphische Forschungen in Termessos und seinem Territorium 1. Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

1 İplikçioğlu et al. 1991, 15-18.

Editor or Translator as Author

Picón, C.A., ed. 2007. Art of the Classical World in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Greece, Cyprus, Etruria, Rome. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.

1 Picón 2007, 205-209.

Editor or Translator with Author

De Bernardi Ferrero, D. 1990. Batı Anadolu’nun Eski Çağ Tiyatroları. Translated by E. Özbayoğlu. Ankara: Dönmez Offset.

1 De Bernardi Ferrero 1990, 115-118.

Chapters or other titled parts of a book

Özgan, R. 1997. “Zwei hellenistische Werke aus Stratonikeia”. In Sculptors and Sculpture of Caria and the Dodecanese, edited by I. Jenkins and G. B. Waywell, 114-119. London: British Museum Press.

1 Özgan 1997, 115, fig. 2a.

Bingöl, O. 2012. “Neue Erkenntnisse am Tempel der Artemis Leukophryene in Magnesia”. Dipteros und Pseudodipteros. Bauhistorische und Archäologische Forschungen, edited by T. Schulz. Byzas 12, 113-121. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları

1 Bingöl 2012, 115.

Sample References to Journal Articles

Article in an online journal and a print journal

Büyüközer, A. 2018. “The Sanctuary of Hekate at Lagina in the 4th Century BC”. Arkhaia Anatolika 1: 15-30. DOI:

1 Büyüközer 2018, 17-19.

Dedeoğlu, F., and A. Ozan. 2016. “What Happened in Inland Southwestern Anatolia Before 5500 BC? A Review of the Archaeological Evidence from the Selcen-Örenarası Settlement”. Olba XXIV: 1-30.

1 Dedeoğlu and Ozan 2016, 25-28.

 Andreau, J., P. Schmitt-Pantel, and A. Schnapp. 1978. “Paul Veyne et l’évergétisme”. AnnÉconSocCiv 33(2): 307-325.

1 Andreau et al. 1978, 307-308.

 Citation for an author with more than one cited publication within the same year

Bruns-Özgan, C. 2002a. Knidos Antik Kent Rehberi. Konya: Pozitif Matbaacılık.

1 Bruns-Özgan 2002a, 25.

Bruns-Özgan, C. 2002b. “Eine frühkaiserzeitliche Stoa in Knidos und ihre Funde”. Patris und Imperium, edited by C. Berns, H. von Hesberg, L. Vandeput, and M. Waelken. BABesch Supplement 8, 247-256. Leuven; Paris; Dudley, MA: Peeters.

2 Bruns-Özgan 2002b, 250, fig. 3.

 Theses and Dissertations

Gider-Büyüközer, Z. 2013. “Karia Bölgesi Dor Mimarisi.” PhD. diss., Selçuk University.

1 Gider-Büyüközer 2013, 256.

Ünver, G. 2005. “Lykia ve Pamphylia’nın Latince ve Latince-Yunanca Çift Dilli Yazıtları Işığında Romalılaşma Süreci.” Master’s thesis, Akdeniz University.


Ancient Greek and Latin Authors and Works

Abbreviations for ancient authors and their Works in Der Neue Pauly Enzyklopädie der Antike in Antike Autoren list.

Hdt. I, 171.

Strab. XIV, 2, 16 (C 656)

Plin. nat. V, 107.

Greek and Latin sources should not be included in the bibliography unless there is original text edition or a comparative criticism made over the translations.

Plin. epist.       (Plinius Minor) G. Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Epistulae; Text and Translate: Pliny, Letters. With an English translation by W. Melmoth, (rev. W. H. L. Hutchinson). London 1963 (The Loeb Classical Library).

Plinius, Genç Plinius’un Anadolu Mektupları. (Çev.) Ç. Dürüşken – E. Özbayoğlu. İstanbul 2001.


Epigraphic corpora

For abbreviation of corpus DGE (Diccionario Griego-Español) List III and Suppl. III (

If you are referring to an inscription in Corpus or defined with a number in the compilation;

I.Knidos, nr. 6

If a particular line / line of an inscription is to be referred to;

I.Knidos, nr. 15 (l. 2); I.Knidos, nr. 15 (ll. 2-3)

If referred to an explanation or a footnote in the Corpus text;

I.Knidos, 63

I.Knidos, 52 fn. 12

 For Bibliography

I.Knidos = Blümel, W. (1992). Die Inschriften von Knidos, Teil I. Inschriften griechischer Städte aus Kleinasien, Bd. 41, Bonn.


Suggestions for other abbreviations







cat. no.

catalogue number










for example

Ed. / Eds.




et al.

et alii


et cetera






id est


















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