Arrangment of Mutulus and Guttae in Doric Geison

Zeliha GİDER BÜYÜKÖZER

Arkhaia Anatolika 1. Sayı

Arrival Date : 14.07.2018 | Acceptance Date : 19.10.2018

DOI : 10.32949/Arkhaia.2018.4 | Release Date : 15.11.2018 18:17:43

Summary

Doric geison blocks with mutules-guttae become standard elements of architecture in the beginning of the 6th century BC. The Doric geison, however, and its different applications in early cases show that distinct development over time. A characteristic of 6th century BC buildings that the mutules-guttae placed on the metope be narrower than the mutules-guttae on triglyphs; accordingly the number of guttae on the surface of the mutules changes. After much experimentation on mutule arrangement and guttae number, architects in the 6th century BC balanced the width of the mutules on the metopes with the triglyphs around 530 BC and fixed the number of guttae as 3x6. The narrow application of the mutules on the metopes was also reapplied occasionally in the Roman period.

In the Classical Period, the slope of the mutules was calculated as ± 15° and from the second half of the 4th century BC this angle began to get smaller. In 2nd century BC, the slope of the mutules was usually either very low or there was no slope at all; this implementation continued in the Early Imperial Period.

In the earliest examples, thick mutules and long guttae are a characteristic feature in Doric geisons. In Doric buildings in Anatolia, beginning from the 3rd century BC, guttae and mutules began to shrink. Mutules executed in the form of thin plates, however, began in the first half of the 2nd century BC, and this type of mutule continued to be used throughout the Roman period. In some Doric geisons dated to the Late Hellenistic and Early Imperial periods, mutules were separated from viae by a fine line. The mutules placed in the area between the geison soffit and the drips from the early stages are also connected to these two elements. Over time mutules were disconnected from the geison soffit and drip; thus a fine fascia was formed between the geison soffit and the mutules and between mutules and drip.

The distribution of guttae over the surface of mutules also evolved over time. In the early stages, the distance between the guttae sequences in the triple sequence is about double or slightly more than double the diameter of the guttae. This distance, which is usually 3:2 in the 4th century BC, was equalized in a few buildings in the 3rd century BC, in the 2nd century BC; the distance between guttae was set narrower than the diameter of guttae. Densely set guttae are a characteristic of buildings from the Roman period. In the Early Imperial period, besides the mutules, with the guttae set aside on the four sides, the opposite practice, which was mutules with guttae pulled toward inside on the four sides, was also used together. Another change in Doric geison is evident in the area between the width of the mutules and the width of the viae. The viae, which were worked at the proportion of 1:5 in the early stages, narrowed steadily later in the period and towards the end of the 1st century AD it decreased as much as the proportion of 1:10.

Ancient Literature

Vitr.

(=Vitruvius, De Architechtura)

Kullanılan Çeviri: Vitruvius, Mimarlık Üzerine On Kitap, (Çev. S. Güven), 1998.

 

Modern Literature

Bankel 2004

H. Bankel, “Knidos. Das Triopion. Zur Topographie des Stammesheiligtums der dorischen Hexapolis”, Eds. E.-L. Schwandner – K. Rheidt. Macht der Architectur - Architectur der Macht, 2004, 100-113.

Barletta 2001

B. A. Barletta, The Origins of the Greek Architectural Orders, Cambridge2001.

Barletta 2016

B. A. Barletta, “Monumentality and Foreing Infulience in Early Greek Temples”, Ed. M. M. Miles. A Companion to Greek Architecture, Oxford, 2016, 31-45.

Benndorf – Niemann 1884

O. Benndorf – G. Niemann, Reisen in Lykien und Karien I, Wien, 1884.

Berns 1999

C. Berns, “Der Hellenistische Grabturm von Olba”, Olba II.1, 1999, 111-129.

Berns 2003

C. Berns, Untersuchungen zu den Grabbauten der frühen Kaiserzeit in Kleinasien, Asia Minor Studien 51, 2003.

Bohn 1885

R. Bohn, Das Heiligtum der Athena Polias Nikephoros, AvP II, Berlin, 1885.

Bohn 1896

R. Bohn, Die Theater-Terrasse, AvP IV, Berlin, 1896.

Borchhardt – Stanzl 1990

J. Borchhardt – G. Stanzl, “Ein hellenistischer Bau des Herrscher-Kultes: Das Ptolemaion in Limyra”, Götter, Heroen, Herrscher in Lykien, Wien, 1990, 79-84.

Borchhardt 1991

J. Borchhardt, “Ein Ptolemaion in Limyra”, Revue archéologique, Bulletin de la SFAC, 1991, 309-322.

Bruns-Özgan 2002

C. Bruns-Özgan, Knidos Antik Kent Rehberi, Konya, 2002.

Clarke et al. 1902

J. T. Clarke – F. H. Bacon – R. Koldewey, Investigations at Assos, Boston, 1902.

Conze – Schazmann 1911

A. Conze – P. Schazmann, Mamurt-Kaleh: Ein Tempel der Göttermutter unweit Pergamon, Berlin, 1911.

Coulton 1976

J. J. Coulton, The Architectural Development of the Greek Stoa, Oxford, 1976.

Coulton 1977

J. J. Coulton, Greek Architects at Work: Problems of Structure and Design, London, 1977.

Coulton 1982

J. J. Coulton, “Oinoanda: The Doric Building (Mk2)”, AnatSt 32, 1982, 45-59.

De Bernardi Ferrero 1970

D. De Bernardi Ferrero, Teatri classici in Asia Minore III, Roma, 1970.

De Bernardi Ferrero 1974

D. De Bernardi Ferrero, Teatri classici in Asia Minore IV, Roma, 1974.

Deubner 1990

O. Deubner, “Eine pergamenische Architekturordnung?”, Eds. B. Otto – F. Ehrl. Echo. Beiträge zur Archäologie des mediterranen und alpinen Raumes, Innsbruck, 1990, 89-97.

Dinsmoor 1933

W. B. Dinsmoor, “The Tempel of Apollo at Bassae”, MMS 4.2, 1933, 204-227.

Dinsmoor 1950

W. B. Dinsmoor, The Architecture of Ancient Greece, London, 1950.

Drew – Bear 1995

Th. Drew-Bear, “Pisidia Antiocheia’sının Parlak Dönemlerini Yansıtan Yazıtlar”, 12. AST, 1995, 13-17.

Durm 1910

J. Durm, Die Baukunst der Griechen, Leipzig, 1910.

Dyer 1906

L. Dyer, “Details of the Olympian Treasuries”, JHS 26, 1906, 46-83.

Dyggve 1960

E. Dyggve, Le Sanctuaire d’Athana Lindia et l’architecture Lindienne, Lindos III.1. Fouilles de l’Acropole 1902-1914 et 1952, Berlin, 1960.

Filges 2006

A. Filges, Blaundos. Berichte zur Erforschung einer Kleinstadt im lydisch-phrygischen Grenzgebiet, IstForsch 48, 2006.

Filgis – Radt 1986

M. N. Filgis – W. Radt, Die Stadtgrabung I: Das Heroon, AvP XV.1, Berlin, 1986.

Fraser – Bean 1954

P. M. Fraser – G. E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, Oxford, 1954.

Gàbrici 1935

E. Gàbrici, “Per la storia dell’architettura dorica in Sicilia”, MonAnt 35, 1935, 137-250.

Gider 2012

Z. Gider, “Lagina Kuzey Stoanın Ön Cephe Düzenlemesi”, Ed. B. Söğüt. Stratonikeia’dan Lagina’ya, A. A. Tırpan’a Armağan, İstanbul, 2012, 263-280.

Gider-Büyüközer 2013

Z. Gider-Büyüközer, Karia Bölgesi Dor Mimarisi. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Selçuk Üniversitesi, Konya, 2013.

Goethert – Schleif 1962

F. W. Goethert – H. Schleif, Der Athenatempel von Ilion, Denkmäler Antiker Architektur 10, 1962.

Hellström – Thieme 1981

P. Hellström – T. Thieme, “The Androns at Labraunda. A Preliminary Account of their Architecture”, MedmusB 16, 1981, 58-74.

Hoffelner 1999

K. Hoffelner, Das Apollon-Heiligtum. Tempel, Altäre, Temenosmauer, Thearion (Alt Ägina I,3), Mainz am Rhein, 1999.

Hornbostel-Hüttner 1979

G. Hornbostel-Hüttner, Studien zur römischen Nischenarchitektur, Leiden, 1979.

Howe 1985

T. N. Howe, The Invention of the Doric Order, PhD. Diss., Harvard University, London, 1985.

Humann 1904

C. Humann, Eds. J. Kohte – C. Watzinger. Magnesia am MaeanderBericht über die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen der Jahre 1891-1893, Berlin, 1904.

Ismaelli 2009

T. Ismaelli, Hierapolis di Frigia III: Architettura Dorica a Hierapolis di Frigia, İstanbul, 2009.

Jacopi 1932

G. Jacopi, “Il tempio e il teatro di Apollo Eretimio”, ClRh II, 1932, 77-116.

Jacopi 1932/33

G. Jacopi, Esplorazione Archeologica di Camiro II, Necropoli, Acropoli, ClRh VI-VII1932/33.

Kader 1995

I. Kader, "Heroe and Memorialbauten", Eds. M. Wörrle – P. Zanker. Stadtbild und Bürgerbild im Hellenismus, München, 1995, 199-229.

Kalinka 1920

E. Kalinka, Tituli Lyciae linguis Graeca et Latina conscripti 1: Pars Lyciae occidentalis cum Xantho oppido, Tituli Asiae Minoris II, Vienna, 1920.

Kawerau – Wiegand 1930

K. Kawerau – Th. Wiegand, Die Paläste der Hochburg, AvP V.1, Berlin, 1930.

Klein 1991

N. L. Klein, The Origins of the Doric Order on the Mainland of Greece: Form and Function of the Geison in the Archaic Period, PhD. Diss., Bryn Mawr College, Philadelphia, 1991.

Klein 1998

N. L. Klein, “Evidence for West Greek Influence on Mainland Greek Roof Construction and the Creation of the Truss in the Archaic Period”, Hesperia 67.4, 1998, 335-374.

Koldewey – Puchstein 1899

R. Koldewey – O. Puchstein, Die Griechischen Tempel in Unteritalien und Sicilien, Berlin, 1899.

Lang 1985

G. J. Lang, “Zur oberen Osthalle der Agora, der „Neronischen Halle“ in Ephesos”, Eds. M. Kandler – S. Karwiese – R. Pillinger. Lebendige Altertumswissenschaft: Festgabe zur Vollendung des 70. Lebensjahres von Hermann Vetters, Vienna, 1985, 176-180.

La Rocca 2005

E. La Rocca, “Survey archeologica nell’area del golfo di Mandalya (Turchia)”, PP 60, 2005, 392-418.

Lauter 1986

H. Lauter, Die Architektur des Hellenismus, Darmstadt, 1986.

Love 1970

I. C. Love, “A Preliminary Report of the Excavations at Knidos, 1969”, AJA 74.2, 1970, 149-155.

Love 1972

I. C. Love, “A Preliminary Report of the Excavations at Knidos, 1970”, AJA 76.1, 1972, 61-76.

Love 1978

I. C. Love, “A Brief Summary of Excavations at Knidos 1967-1973”, The Proceedings of the Xth International Congress of Classical Archaeology, Vol. II, Ankara, 1978, 1111-1133.

Mansel 1970

A. M. Mansel, “1970 Yılı Perge Kazısına Dair Ön Rapor”, TürkArkDerg 19-1, 1970, 169-184.

Mansel 1975

A. M. Mansel, “Bericht über Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen in Pamphylien in den Jahren 1957-1972”, AA, 1975, 49-96.

Martini 1984

W. Martini, Das Gymnasium von Samos, Samos XVI, 1984.

McCredie et al. 1992

J. R. McCredie – G. Roux – S. M. Shaw – J. Kurtich, The Rotunda of Arsinoe, Samothrace 7, Princeton, 1992.

Mert 2008

İ. H. Mert, Untersuchungen zur hellenistischen und kaiserzeitlichen Bauornamentik von Stratonikeia, IstForsch 50, 2008.

Mertens 1993

D. Mertens, Der alte Heratempel in Paestum und die archaische Baukunst in Unteritalien, Mainz am Rhein, 1993.

Mertens 1996

D. Mertens, “Die Entstehung des Steintempels in Sizilien”, Ed. E.-L. Schwandner. Säule und Gebälk. Zu Struktur und Wandlungsprozeß griechisch-römischer Architektur, Bauforschungskolloquium in Berlin vom 16. bis 18. Juni 1994, 1996, 25-38.

Mitchell – Waelkens 1998

S. Mitchell – M. Waelkens, Pisidian Antioch: The Site and its Monuments, London, 1998.

Moretti 2012a

J.-C. Moretti, “Claros, le temple d’Apollon : travaux réalisés en 2011”, Anatolia Antiqua XX, Paris, 2012, 205-213.

Moretti 2012b

J.-C. Moretti, “Le temple de l’oracle d’Apollon a Claros” Ed. O. Henry, Archéologies et espaces parcourus. Premières Rencontres d'Archéologie de l’IFEA İstanbul (11-13 Novembre 2010), İstanbul, 2012, 111-128.

Pedersen 2004

P. Pedersen, “Halikarnassos and the Ptolemies II. The Architecture of Hellenistic Halikarnassos”, Eds. S. Isager – P. Pedersen. Halicarnassian Studies IV: The Salmakis Inscription and Hellenisctic Halikarnassos Odense, 2004, 145-164.

Praschniker – Theuer 1979

C. Praschniker – M. Theuer, Das Mausoleum von Belevi, Ephesos VI, Wien, 1979.

Pülz 1989

S. Pülz, Untersuchungen zur kaiserzeitlichen Bauornamentik von Didyma, IstMitt-BH 35, 1989.

Reynolds 1981

J. M. Reynolds, “New Evidence for the Imperial Cult in Julio-Claudian Aphrodisias”, ZPE 43, 1981, 317-327.

Reynolds 1982

J. M. Reynolds, Aphrodisias and Rome, JRS Monograph 1, London, 1982.

Reynolds et al. 2007

J. M. Reynolds, Ch. Roueché, G. Bodard, Inscriptions of Aphrodisias, http://insaph. kcl. ac. uk/iaph2007.

Robertson 1969

D. S. Robertson, Greek and Roman Architecture, Cambridge, 1969.

Rocco – Livadiotti 2011

G. Rocco – M. Livadiotti, “The Agora of Kos: The Hellenistic and Roman Phases”, Ed. A. Giannikouri. The Agora in the Mediterranean from Homeric to Roman times. International Conference Kos, 14-17 April 2011, Atina, 2011, 383-423.

Rumscheid 1994

F. Rumscheid, Untersuchungen zur Kleinasiatischen Bauornamentik des Hellenismus, Mainz, 1994.

Schazmann 1923

P. Schazmann, Das Gymnasion. Der Tempelbezirk der Hera Basileia, AvP VI, Berlin, 1923.

Schazmann 1932

P. Schazmann, Kos I: Asklepieion. Baubeschreibung und Baugeschichte. Ed. R. Herzog, Berlin, 1932.

Schwandner 1976

E.-L. Schwandner, “Der Ältere Aphaiatempel auf Aegina“, Neue Forschungen in Griechischen Heiligtümern, 1976, 103-120.

Schwandner 1985

E. L. Schwandner, Der Ältere Porostempel der Aphaia auf Aegina, Denkmäler Antiker Architektur 16, 1985.

Söğüt 2012

B. Söğüt, “Stratonikeia 2010 Yılı Çalışmaları”, 33. KST-IV, 2012, 395-419.

Söğüt 2013

B. Söğüt, “Stratonikeia 2011 Yılı Çalışmaları”, 34. KST-III, 2013, 45-58.

Stanzl 1993

G. Stanzl, “Das Sogenannte Ptolemaion in Limyra. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen”, Eds. J. Borchhardt – G. Dobesch. Akten des II. Internationalen Lykien-Symposions Ergäzungsbände zu den Tituli Asiae Minoris 18, Wien, 1993, 183-190.

Steskal 2010

M. Steskal, Das Prytaneion in Ephesos, Ephesos XIV/4, Wien, 2010.

Strocka 2005

V. M. Strocka, “Griechische Löwenkopf-Wasserspeier in Ephesos”, Synergia, Festschrift für Fritz Krinzinger (2005), 337-348.

Strong 1963

D. E. Strong, “Some Observations on Early Roman Corinthian”, JRS 53, 1963, 73-84.

Taşlıalan 1993

M. Taşlıalan, Pisidia Antiocheia’sı Augustus Kutsal Alanı ve Tapınağının Rekonstrüksiyonu. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Selçuk Üniversitesi, Konya, 1993.

Taşlıalan 1994

M. Taşlıalan, “Pisidia Antiocheia’sı 1992 Çalışmaları”, 4. Müze Kurtarma Kazıları Semineri, 1994, 245-284.

Tölle-Kastenbein 1974

R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Das Kastro Tigani. Die Bauten und Funde griechischer, römischer und byzantinischer Zeit, Samos XIV, 1974.

Vallois 1923

R. Vallois, Le Portique de Philippe, Délos 7, Paris, 1923.

Varinlioğlu – Debord 2003

E. Varinlioğlu – P. Debord, “Hyllarima 2001”, 20. AST-II, 2003, 85-92.

von Gerkan 1921

A. von Gerkan, Das Theater von Priene, Berlin, 1921.

von Gerkan 1925

A. von Gerkan, Kalabaktepe, Athenatempel und Umgebung, Milet 1.8, Berlin, 1925.

von Hesberg 1980

H. von Hesberg, Konsolengeisa des Hellenismus und der frühen Kaiserzeit, RM 24, 1980.

von Kienlin 2000

A. von Kienlin, “Zum Heiligtum an der Agora von Priene”, Bericht über die 40. Tagung für Ausgrabungswissenschaft und Bauforschung vom 20. bis 23. Mai 1998 in Wien, Bonn, 2000, 79-85.

von Kienlin 2004

A. von Kienlin, Die Agora von Priene, PhD. Diss., Technische Universität München, München, 2004.

Wiegand 1902

Th. Wiegand, “Zweiter vorläufiger Bericht über die Ausgrabungen der königlichen Museen zu Milet”, AA, 1902, 147-150.

Wiegand – Schrader 1904

Th. Wiegand  H. Schrader, Priene, Berlin, 1904.

Wilberg 1923

W. Wilberg, Die Agora, Ephesos III, Wien, 1923.

Wulzinger 1941

K. Wulzinger, “Das Rathaus von Herakleia am Latmos”, Ed. F. Krischen. Antike Rathäuser, Berlin, 1941, 22-33.

Ziegenaus – de Luca 1968

O. Ziegenaus – G. de Luca, Das Asklepieion. Der südliche Temenosbezirk in hellenistischer und frührömischer Zeit, AvP XI.1, Berlin, 1968.

Ziegenaus – de Luca 1975

O. Ziegenaus – G. de Luca, Das Asklepieion. Der nördliche Temenosbezirk und angrenzende Anlagen in hellenistischer und frührömischer Zeit, AvP XI.2, Berlin, 1975.

Share!