Why are there no Neolithic mega-sites in the Anatolian Euphrates basin? A socio-archaeological approach to the marital structure of early farming societies

Cédric BODET

Arkhaia Anatolika 2. Sayı

Geliş Tarihi : 16.01.2019 | Kabul Tarihi : 10.05.2019

DOI : 10.32949/Arkhaia.2019.7 | Yayın Tarihi : 29.5.2019 19:15:03

Özet

Orta Anadolu’daki Geç Neolitik mega köylerin ortaya çıkışı ve ortadan kalkması tam olarak anlaşılamamıştır. Güney Doğu Anadolu’da, karışık-tarım ekonomisinin (ve sosyal karşılığı, Ev içi Üretim Modu) ilk ortaya çıktığı alan olarak, bu büyük tarımsal yerleşimler bilinmedikleri için, daha da şaşırtıcıdır. Bu bilmeceyi ele almak için, arkeolojik verilerin salt okunması, ikna edici açıklamaların dışında kalacaktır. Mutlaka uygun etnolojik analizlerle desteklenen, sosyolojik bir bakış açısı benimsemek gerekir. Bu açıdan bakıldığında, ilk önce anlaşılması gereken unsur, çiftçiliğin benimsenmesinin uzun vadede avcı-toplayıcı toplum yapısını derinden değiştirmiş olmasıdır; özellikle, evlilik ittifaklarının, akrabalık grubu içinden çok, dış dünya ile gerçekleştiği düşünülmektedir. İkinci nokta da, bu iç düzenlemenin çok ağır ve yavaş olması nedeniyle, mega-köylerin her yerde eşit görülmemesine yol açmış olabileceğidir.

Yeni üretim moduna verilen sosyal tepki sonunda her yerde evlilik sisteminin açılmasına neden olmuştur. Ancak, bu tepki, tarımın Fırat havzasında olduğu gibi yavaş yavaş bağımsız bir şekilde çıkmasından ya da Orta Anadolu’daki yerel avcı-toplayıcılar tarafından hızlıca benimsenmesinden, belirgin şekilde farklı bir yol izlenmiş görünüyor. İkinci toplulukların sosyal yapısı, tarım başlamasından sonra çok uzun süre durdu: geleneksel karşılıklı evlilik uygulamaları (yerel endogami), insanların köyden ayrılmalarını önlemiş gibi gözüküyor ve aynı zamanda zaman içinde nüfus birikimine yol açmış olabilir (ve kadın kaçırma olayları köylerin bitişik şekline zorlamış olabilir). Öte yandan, başlangıçtan itibaren yerleşik hayatın ve tarımın ortaya çıkmasına tanık olan Fırat toplumlarının, kendilerini Evcil Üretim Moduna ayarlamaları için yüzyılları olmuş; bu evlilik esnekliği, Geç Neolitik Dönem boyunca Kuzey Mezopotamya’ya yavaş yavaş küçük tarım yerleşimlerinin yayılmasını sağlamış ve herhangi belirli bir yerleşimde nüfusun yoğunlaşmasını engellemiş olduğu iddia edilebilir.

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C. Bodet, “Why are there no Neolithic mega-sites in the Anatolian Euphrates basin? A socio-archaeological approach to the marital structure of early farming societies”, Arkhaia Anatolika 2 (2019), 21-51. DOI: 10.32949/Arkhaia.2019.7

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